The Middle Ages of European trade and commerce have witnessed very rapid expansion across all the European countries. The key factor that contributed to this sudden expansion was the Crusades. They helped to improve the trade relations with many Eastern as well as western countries, which gave a great boost for foreign trade by removing the hurdles, which had been hampering the growth since long time.

The Federation of European Business Communicators Association (FIEFA), was founded in the year 1955 and is a non-profit organization. The Federation of European Business Communicators Association (FIEFA) functions entirely because of the efforts made by volunteers and members spread across its various national associations. It is an embodiment of cross-border co-ordination and cooperation amongst national member associations.

The ‘European Economic and Social Committee’ was established in the year 1958, and is an important body of the European Union. Abbreviated as EESC, the European Economic and Social Committee, is a consulting organization, comprising employers, employees,

An executive body of the European Union, which proposes legislations, implements decisions and looks after the sound functioning of the European Union in all its aspects, is known as the European Commission. European Commission has deployed 27 members, referred to as ‘Commissioners’ and functions just like a cabinet government having a variety of portfolios.

An important official institution of European Union is named, ‘the European Council’.


The European Council comprises President of European Council and that of European Commission, along with the heads of European Union member states and their respective governments. The European council is headed by its president and as of year 2009; ‘Herman Van Rompuy’ was the European Council’s President, who remains incumbent until 2012.

The European Union is home to its 450 million citizens and considers itself a protector of civil rights and liberties of all its citizens, in addition to, guarding the European Interests. A supreme authoritative body that has power to amend and form legislations known as ‘European Parliament’ or ‘Europarl or EP’ (as abbreviated), is entitled to operate independently in interest of European Union. The European Parliament consists of 754 members (as per the 7th Parliamentary term) that have directly been elected in their respective member states. The European Union Parliamentary elections are held every five years and any genuine European Union citizen who is a registered voter can vote in these elections.

There are various types of business entity defined according to the legal system and jurisdiction of different countries. Some of the types include sole traders, partnerships, cooperatives, corporations, Limited Liability Company and many more. However, in Europe, different business entities such as EEIG, SCE, SE and SPE are prevalent, which are covered under business formats like partnerships and companies.

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The etymology of the term ‘cybersquatting’ is simple enough to understand the purpose of its usage in internet or cyber laws. The word squatting refers to an unlawful act of illegitimately occupying a property or an entity, which is actually owned by someone else, with or without his/her consent or knowledge, having an ill-intent and lack of faith.

In order to strengthen its non-discriminatory framework of laws, the United States of America introduced the Americans with Disabilities Act in the year 1990. The American Disability Act defines disability as mental or physical impairment that is capable of substantially limiting major life activities.

Copyright law strictly prohibits the copying of creative work such as music, film and books. This law protects the rights of owners and creators, determining who can purchase, distribute and copy the creative work. This law also applies to derivative works, which means something based on the earlier or underlying work.

Ever heard of a kimono store or dashiki store in London or Paris or Rome? You will never find such stores in Europe for the simple reason being that Europeans don’t use these apparels and hence you will not get customers and because of that your revenue will not increase. You cannot think of product without knowing the consumer.

A brand is a symbol, sign, term, name or a blend of them, which is anticipated to identify the services and goods of one seller or group of sellers, and to differentiate them from those of the competition. In general, whenever a marketer creates a name logo symbol, she or he has created a brand.

Out of numerous business marketing techniques used nowadays, email marketing has marked itself as the mostly preferred way of online marketing. Being an important part of online marketing, it provides a great deal of communication tool in building relationships.

Home business depends on the skills you are expert in and so it is necessary to think about it before you start. If you are crazy about playing with machine objects like screw drivers, nails, wires, sockets etc then appliances and electronics repair would be the best to start. You can also undergo training to learn machine repairing, if you are interested in starting this home business.

Most of you must be having some creative talent or hobby of creating something new out of scrap. Have you ever thought that it can give you a good income? Often, you prepare handbags, decorative vases or showpieces for your usage. If you sell these creative materials in the market you will surely earn some amount for your savings. The products which you create can be sold even in the local flea markets or at the crafts fair. You can even create your own arts and crafts website and sell products online.

Home services refer to services like lawn care, chimney sweep, locksmith etc that you provide from your home or at client's home. There are many challenges and goals which have to be met every day in these types of business. Whenever there is an emergency at the client's home, you will have to reach on time to avoid any hazards. This type of business requires hard work and also potentials to meet new challenges.

Corporate communication is the measure of a society or association, or group, actually correspond mission, vision and brand of product to their employees, customers, competitors and the general public, i.e. public relations.

Starting a business is not a cakewalk and you must know your financial strengths and weaknesses very well before commencing the business. While finalizing an appropriate source of finance, it is necessary that you should analyse investment power and risk associated with it. Many businesses result into failure mainly in leverage because of their excessive exposure to finance as compared to investment capacity.